# Redis学习——Redis持久化之AOF备份方式保存数据

新技术的出现一定是在老技术的基础之上，并且完善了老技术的某一些不足的地方，新技术和老技术就如同JAVA中的继承关系。

1.RDB可以搞定备份恢复的事情，为什么还会出现AOF？

    答案：这个问题的答案可以参看，上面说的Redis持久化之RDB备份方式保存数据中的RDB的缺点。
也就是使用RDB进行保存时候，如果Redis服务器发送故障，那么会丢失最后一次备份的数据！
AOF出现试着来解决这个问题！

2.同时出现RDB和AOF是冲突呢？还是协作？

答案：是协作，不会冲突!那么是如何协作，首先加载哪一个文件呢？

当redis服务器挂掉时，重启时将按照以下优先级恢复数据到内存：

3.AOF有什么优缺点？

这个看文章下面的介绍吧！

############################## APPEND ONLY MODE ###############################

# By default Redis asynchronously dumps the dataset on disk. This mode is
# good enough in many applications, but an issue with the Redis process or
# a power outage may result into a few minutes of writes lost (depending on
# the configured save points).
#
# The Append Only File is an alternative persistence mode that provides
# much better durability. For instance using the default data fsync policy
# (see later in the config file) Redis can lose just one second of writes in a
# dramatic event like a server power outage, or a single write if something
# wrong with the Redis process itself happens, but the operating system is
# still running correctly.
#
# AOF and RDB persistence can be enabled at the same time without problems.
# If the AOF is enabled on startup Redis will load the AOF, that is the file
# with the better durability guarantees.
#

appendonly no

# The name of the append only file (default: "appendonly.aof")

appendfilename "appendonly.aof"

# The fsync() call tells the Operating System to actually write data on disk
# instead of waiting for more data in the output buffer. Some OS will really flush
# data on disk, some other OS will just try to do it ASAP.
#
# Redis supports three different modes:
#
# no: don't fsync, just let the OS flush the data when it wants. Faster.
# always: fsync after every write to the append only log. Slow, Safest.
# everysec: fsync only one time every second. Compromise.
#
# The default is "everysec", as that's usually the right compromise between
# speed and data safety. It's up to you to understand if you can relax this to
# "no" that will let the operating system flush the output buffer when
# it wants, for better performances (but if you can live with the idea of
# some data loss consider the default persistence mode that's snapshotting),
# or on the contrary, use "always" that's very slow but a bit safer than
# everysec.
#
# More details please check the following article:
# http://antirez.com/post/redis-persistence-demystified.html
#
# If unsure, use "everysec".

# appendfsync always
appendfsync everysec
# appendfsync no

# When the AOF fsync policy is set to always or everysec, and a background
# saving process (a background save or AOF log background rewriting) is
# performing a lot of I/O against the disk, in some Linux configurations
# Redis may block too long on the fsync() call. Note that there is no fix for
# this currently, as even performing fsync in a different thread will block
# our synchronous write(2) call.
#
# In order to mitigate this problem it's possible to use the following option
# that will prevent fsync() from being called in the main process while a
# BGSAVE or BGREWRITEAOF is in progress.
#
# This means that while another child is saving, the durability of Redis is
# the same as "appendfsync none". In practical terms, this means that it is
# possible to lose up to 30 seconds of log in the worst scenario (with the
# default Linux settings).
#
# If you have latency problems turn this to "yes". Otherwise leave it as
# "no" that is the safest pick from the point of view of durability.

no-appendfsync-on-rewrite no

# Automatic rewrite of the append only file.
# Redis is able to automatically rewrite the log file implicitly calling
# BGREWRITEAOF when the AOF log size grows by the specified percentage.
#
# This is how it works: Redis remembers the size of the AOF file after the
# latest rewrite (if no rewrite has happened since the restart, the size of
# the AOF at startup is used).
#
# This base size is compared to the current size. If the current size is
# bigger than the specified percentage, the rewrite is triggered. Also
# you need to specify a minimal size for the AOF file to be rewritten, this
# is useful to avoid rewriting the AOF file even if the percentage increase
# is reached but it is still pretty small.
#
# Specify a percentage of zero in order to disable the automatic AOF
# rewrite feature.

auto-aof-rewrite-percentage 100
auto-aof-rewrite-min-size 64mb

# An AOF file may be found to be truncated at the end during the Redis
# startup process, when the AOF data gets loaded back into memory.
# This may happen when the system where Redis is running
# crashes, especially when an ext4 filesystem is mounted without the
# data=ordered option (however this can't happen when Redis itself
# crashes or aborts but the operating system still works correctly).
#
# Redis can either exit with an error when this happens, or load as much
# data as possible (the default now) and start if the AOF file is found
# to be truncated at the end. The following option controls this behavior.
#
# If aof-load-truncated is set to yes, a truncated AOF file is loaded and
# the Redis server starts emitting a log to inform the user of the event.
# Otherwise if the option is set to no, the server aborts with an error
# and refuses to start. When the option is set to no, the user requires
# to fix the AOF file using the "redis-check-aof" utility before to restart
# the server.
#
# Note that if the AOF file will be found to be corrupted in the middle
# the server will still exit with an error. This option only applies when
# Redis will try to read more data from the AOF file but not enough bytes
# will be found.
aof-load-truncated yes

1.默认AOF没有开启

    appendonly no #如果要开启，改为yes
• 启动：修改为yes，启动，这里要注意的是启动的目录和保存aof文件目录是否一致！查看目录命令(config get dir)，这一点在上一篇RDB中讲过，不懂的请看上一篇RDB中 3:配置位置，以及快照恢复
• 修复：使用redis-check-aof –fix 进行修复
• 恢复：重启redis然后重新加载

2.默认名称

    appendonlyfilename   appendonly.aof

3.三种appendfsysnc：同步策略

    #always：同步持久化，每次发生数据变更会立即记录到磁盘，性能较差到数据完整性比较好
everysec：出厂的默认推荐，异步同步，每秒记录一次
#no：不同步

1.重写是什么？

 AOF采用文件追加方式，文件会越来越大为避免出现此种情况，新增了重写机制,当AOF文件的大小超过所设定的阈值时，Redis就会启动AOF文件的内容压缩，只保留可以恢复数据的最小指令集.可以使用命令bgrewriteaof！


2.重写原理

    AOF文件持续增长而过大时，会fork出一条新进程来将文件重写(也是先写临时文件最后再rename)，

3.触发机制

Redis会记录上次重写时的AOF大小，默认配置是当AOF文件大小是上次rewrite后大小的一倍且文件大于64M时触发。默认64M。
--看触发机制配置，知道公司实力！

• 每修改同步：appendfsync always 同步持久化 每次发生数据变更会被立即记录到磁盘 性能较差但数据完整性比较好
• 每秒同步：appendfsync everysec 异步操作，每秒记录 如果一秒内宕机，有数据丢失
• 不同步：appendfsync no 从不同步

• 相同数据集的数据而言aof文件要远大于rdb文件，恢复速度慢于rdb
• aof运行效率要慢于rdb,每秒同步策略效率较好，不同步效率和rdb相同

客户端--->命令请求--->服务器 ------->网络协议格式的命令内容-->AOF文件
• AOF 文件是一个只进行追加的日志文件
• Redis可以在AOF文件体积变得过大时，自动地在后台对AOF进行重写
• AOF文件有序地保存了对数据库执行所有写入操作，这些写入操作作为redis协议的格式保存，因此AOF文件的内容非常容易被人读懂，对文件进行分析也很轻松
• 对于相同的数据集来说，AOF文件的体积通常大于RDB文件的体积，根据所使用的fsync策略，AOF的速度可能会慢于RDB

1：到底选择哪个？

• RDB持久化方式能够在指定的时间间隔能对你的数据进行快照存储
• AOF持久化方式记录每次对服务器写的操作,当服务器重启的时候会重新执行这些命令来恢复原始的数据,AOF命令以redis协议追加保存每次写的操作到文件末尾.Redis还能对AOF文件进行后台重写,使得AOF文件的体积不至于过大。

–在这种情况下,当redis重启的时候会优先载入AOF文件来恢复原始的数据,

–RDB的数据不实时，同时使用两者时服务器重启也只会找AOF文件。那要不要只使用AOF呢？

2.性能建议

• 因为RDB文件只用作后备用途，建议只在Slave上持久化RDB文件，而且只要15分钟备份一次就够了，只保留save 900 1这条规则。
• 如果Enalbe AOF，好处是在最恶劣情况下也只会丢失不超过两秒数据，启动脚本较简单只load自己的AOF文件就可以了。代价一是带来了持续的IO，二是AOF rewrite的最后将rewrite过程中产生的新数据写到新文件造成的阻塞几乎是不可避免的。只要硬盘许可，应该尽量减少AOF rewrite的频率，AOF重写的基础大小默认值64M太小了，可以设到5G以上。默认超过原大小100%大小时重写可以改到适当的数值。
• 如果不Enable AOF ，仅靠Master-Slave Replication 实现高可用性也可以。能省掉一大笔IO也减少了rewrite时带来的系统波动。代价是如果Master/Slave同时倒掉，会丢失十几分钟的数据，启动脚本也要比较两个Master/Slave中的RDB文件，载入较新的那个。新浪微博就选用了这种架构

07-20 6470

07-19 1万+
06-23 580
03-07 2899
12-23 2033
01-12 9180
04-06 1337
11-15 241
04-11 144
10-11 176
08-30 1万+
08-13 23
05-22 3万+
09-08 3124
07-18 669
01-13 3927
©️2020 CSDN 皮肤主题: 成长之路 设计师:Amelia_0503